Normansfield and World Events

19th Century

1828 John Langdon Down born at Torpoint in Cornwall

1835 James Henry Pullen born

1837 Victoria becomes Queen

1846 John Langdon Down begins medical training

1848 The Royal Earlswood Asylum founded

1858 Dr John Langdon Down appointed to Earlswood as Medical Superintendant

1859 Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species published

1860 John marries Mary Crellin

1862—65 John photographed residents using glass plates

1865 The White House built, later to become part of the main Normansfield building

1866 Ethnic Classification of Idiots (London Hospital Reports) published / John Langdon Down described the syndrome called Mongolism

1868 John and Mary move to the White House and Normansfield opens

1869 19 residents living at Normansfield / Visit from the Commissioners in Lunacy

1877 Farm buildings built

1879 Formal opening of the Entertainment Hall by the Earl of Devon

1883 Laundry built

1884 Dr Langdon Down appointed JP Middlesex. Boathouse built

1885 New workshops complete

1887 John Langdon Down’s Mental Afflictions of Childhood and Youth (Lettsomian Lecture) published

1889 Dr Langdon Down appointed Alderman of Middlesex

1891 The Genesta Amateur Dramatic Club founded and performed regularly in the Entertainment Hall

1892 Clock Tower wing and conservatory finished

1895 British Medical Association visit Normansfield

1896 Dr John Langdon Down dies

20th Century

1900 Mary Langdon Down dies / 168 residents living at Normansfield

1901 Queen Victoria dies and succeeded by Edward V11

1909 Reginald exhibits handprints of people with Down’s syndrome

1910 Garden Party for the women’s suffrage movement

1913 Mental Deficiency Act 1913 Categorises people with Learning Disabilities

1914-18 First World War

1916 James Henry Pullen dies

1925 Percival Langdon Down dies

1927 Mental Deficiency Act emphasised need for care outside institutions

1939 – 45 Second World War

1940 Stella Brain (John Langdon Down’s granddaughter) and her family return

1939 – 45 Nazi Euthanasia programme kills over 200,000 people with disabilities

1946 National Association of Parents of Backward Children formed. From 1969 called Mencap

1948 NHS founded

1951 Normansfield becomes an NHS Hospital

1953 DNA structure described by Crick and Watson

1955 Reginald Langdon Down dies

1959 Mental Health Act distinguished between learning disability and mental health

1965 Mongolism  changed by World Health Organisation (WHO) to Down’s syndrome

1970 Norman Langdon Down retires / Langdon Down family’s involvement in Normansfield ends / Down’s Syndrome Association founded Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act – first act in the world to give rights to people with disabilities

1976 Unacceptable conditions in the hospital cause the nurses to stage the first strike in NHS history

1977 Committee of Inquiry into Normansfield beings under the chairmanship of Michael Sherrard QC

1978 The Committee of Inquiry report published in November

1986 Disabled Persons Act required written assessments of people with disability

1990 NHS and Community Care Act 1990 promoted care in the community

1993 Normansfield becomes part of the Richmond and Roehampton Healthcare NHS Trust

1995 Disability Discrimination Act gives rights to disabled people to prevent discrimination in employment, property, education and transport

1997 Normansfield Hospital closes / Earlswood Hospital closes

21st Century

2001 Government published its ‘Valuing People’ white paper

2003-05 Developer Laing Homes spends £1.4m to restore and reopen the theatre wing

2004 Down’s Syndrome Association moves from Tooting to Normansfield

2005 Government publishes ‘Improving the life chances of disabled people’ / Mental Capacity Act creates a framework to empower and protect those with learning disability

2008 UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities effective

2009 Government publishes ‘Valuing People Now’ which is a programme of improving services for those with learning disability in the 21st century / UK ratifies

2011 Earlswood Museum donates its collection including objects by James Henry Pullen to the museum

2012 Langdon Down Museum opens